Hydrocele or myelomeningocele
It is one of the common birth defects in our societies. It is usually diagnosed during pregnancy and is dealt with in the first days immediately after birth by doing CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine. Whereas, based on the results of these tests, the diagnosis is confirmed and treatment methods and priority are determined. It is an opening in the vertebral column, which occurs when the process of closing it is not completed during the stages of embryonic development. Where the membranes surrounding the spinal cord appear outside the open vertebra, and some of the nerve-coated parts of the spinal cord emerge from the back, from the back.
Types of meningocele
1. Meningomyelocele. It is the exit of the contents of the nerve bag represented by the nerve roots with the surrounding membranes from the posterior opening of the affected vertebra. It is possible for this cyst or hydrocele to explode during childbirth with the exit of the cerebrospinal fluid, or the cyst is covered with a dark or incorrect layer of skin.
2. Meningocele. It is the emergence or emergence of a posterior cyst against the incomplete vertebra and it contains cerebrospinal fluid only. Also, this cyst or hydrocele may explode at birth with the exit of the cerebrospinal fluid, or the cyst is covered with a dark or incorrect skin layer.
3. Another case is myeloschisis. A condition in which the back skin components of the spine and the membranes are completely missing, and if we look at the back we see the spinal cord completely exposed.
Consequences of having a meningocytosis
1. Dysfunction in the nervous ability to move the lower extremities
2. Deformation of the feet or legs
3. Weakness or loss of superficial sensation in the lower extremities
4. Poor or no control over the two excreting processes
5. Intellectual performance - In general, most children with unaccompanied myelomeningocele do not have any impairment in mental functioning. But in some cases, a number of them have learning difficulties.
The obstetrician and gynecologist supervising the birth of such cases calls the neurosurgeon immediately after birth because the incision is open, it is possible for fluids to leak from the brain, and cause pollution in the central nervous system. Therefore, surgery is performed on the child during the first or second day after birth from order to close the incision. During the surgery, the incision in the back is closed, preventing fluid leakage and infection. However, the surgery does not reduce the condition of the paralysis or even the nerve damage that occurs in the part at the level of the incision and below it. It also needs to be followed up by a urologist, as many of these children need a diversion to the urethra. Children with spina bifida can lead normal and active lives. Also, most of them can walk reasonable distances with the help of a leg brace. But most likely these children will also need a wheelchair to get around. The extent of disability is related to the height and position of the affected vertebra.