the pituitary gland
It is a very small gland located in the middle of the bottom of the skull, its diameter is not more than 1 cm and its weight is between 1/2 to 1 g
It is located in a small bony cavity known as the saddle above the sphenoid sinus at the bottom of the skull.
Before the twentieth century, it was prevalent among scientists that its function was to drain pituitary secretions from the brain through the nose.
With the beginning of the twentieth century, its role in hormonal control in the body was discovered, and after that, the discovery and separation of the hormones generated from it and its chemical composition and its role in controlling other tissues, organs or glands in the body.
In the middle of the twentieth century, the regulatory relationship of the so-called hypothalamus with the pituitary gland was discovered, and it was a new beginning to understand the movement of hormones in the body, and that all endocrine glands are linked to the pituitary gland and the pituitary gland is directly linked to the brain through what is known as the hypothalamus.
• What is the function of the hypothalamus?
• It secretes two groups of hormones, one of which stimulates the pituitary gland and the other inhibits it
• It also contains the bodies of neurons that control the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
It consists of two parts, the anterior lobe 2/3 of the pituitary gland, which is a glandular tissue that secretes hormones
Posterior lobe 1/3 of the pituitary gland It is a nervous tissue that contains nerve endings that transmit hormones.
• When a disorder occurs in the pituitary gland, it leads to a disorder of the body as a whole in one way or another, due to the loss of the balance that we talked about earlier.
• Syndrome known as menopause or disorder and increased milk secretion.
• Of course talking about the main or central cause associated with the pituitary gland.
• Because there are many reasons for the increase in the milk hormone leading to this pathological syndrome, known as peripheral causes. (Pregnancy, breastfeeding, medications, muscle stress, psychological disorder, laziness of the thyroid gland)
The central or main reason for the increase in the milk hormone is the increase in the size of the pituitary gland due to a benign tumor in it or the hypothalamus or any pressure on the arm that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.
The most famous is pituitary adenoma
• What are the symptoms?
• In females: menstrual irregularities, constant presence of milk in the breasts, primary or secondary infertility, low sexual desire.
• In males: primary or secondary infertility, impotence, pathologically increased breast size.
• General symptoms due to direct pressure at the site of the tumor: headache, vomiting tendency, dizziness, disturbance of the field of vision, and other hormonal imbalance.
• Pregnancy: Pregnancy causes the pituitary gland tumor to shrink.
• Staying away from psychological disorders and stress, because in their presence the secretion of the milk hormone increases.
• Avoiding muscular stress in women.
• Medications: There are drugs that cause the pituitary gland tumor to shrink. Most cases of the pituitary gland leading to increased milk hormone respond to drug therapy.
Surgical intervention: In the event of symptoms resulting from direct pressure on the optic nerve, hypothalamus and vital brain tissues, direct and rapid surgical intervention is recommended.
In the case of surgical intervention, it is microscopic surgery or endoscopic surgery through the nose.